In PLOS Biology this week, you can read about new research on the making of the vertebrate neural tube and a chemical modification essential for the functioning of inhibitory synapses in the brain.
Efficient signal transmission at synapses is essential for higher brain functions. Inhibitory signalling in the brain mainly takes place at GABAergic synapses. Gephyrin is an intracellular component of the postsynaptic protein network in these inhibitory synapses (i.e. on the “receiving” side of the synapse), and importantly, is responsible for clustering GABA receptors at the synaptic membrane. Borislav Dejanovic, Guenter Schwarz and colleagues demonstrate that in order to perform its function, gephyrin needs to be modified by palmitoylation – the reversible posttranslational attachment of the fatty acid palmitate (commonly used to make soaps).
A relatively small number of signals are responsible for the variety and pattern of cell types generated in developing vertebrate embryos. The diversity in cell types depends, at least in part, on changes in the way cells respond to each signal. In new research Noriaki Sasai, Eva Kutejova and James Briscoe looked at neural cord development in chick and mouse embryos, and found that in order to specify two important cell types (Floor Plate and Neural Crest) FGF signalling needs to integrate with two perpendicular signalling pathways (Shh and BMP).